Features of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Cheap prostitutes nearest Port Hill Station. Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with on-line partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more likely to happen in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly correlated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The effect of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three distinct reference groups, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative guys no association was apparent between UAI and on-line partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variables concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not significant) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became stronger (and important) for HIV-unaware guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently related to a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. Port Hill Station, Prince Edward Island cheap prostitutes. Cheap Prostitutes closest to Port Hill Station, Prince Edward Island. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive guys there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among guys who indicated they weren't aware of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline partners.
Among HIV-positive guys, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more often with on-line associates than with offline partners. When correcting for partner characteristics, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became nonsignificant; this indicates that differences in partnership variables between online and offline partnerships are accountable for the increased UAI in online established ventures. This may be because of a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other variables. Among HIV negative guys no effect of online dating on UAI was detected, either in univariate or in any of the multivariate models. Among HIV-oblivious guys, online dating was associated with UAI but just critical when adding partner and venture variables to the model.
A vital strength of this study was that it investigated the relation between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and offline casual partners. This prevented prejudice caused by potential differences between men just dating online and those just dating offline, a weakness of several previous studies. Prince Edward Island Cheap Prostitutes. By recruiting participants at the biggest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could comprise a large number of MSM, and prevent potential differences in guys sampled through Internet or face-to-face interviewing, weaknesses in a few previous studies 3 , 11
Online dating was not connected with UAI among HIV-negative guys, a finding in agreement with some previous studies, largely among young men 21 , but in contrast with other studies 1 - 5 This may be because of the reality that most earlier studies compared sexual behaviour of two groups of MSM rather than comparing two sexual behaviour patterns within one group of men. Cheap Prostitutes Near Me Portage Prince Edward Island. Nonetheless it could also reflect secular changes; maybe in the beginning of online dating a more high risk group of men used the Internet, and over time online dating normalized and less high risk MSM now also utilize the Net for dating.
For HIV-oblivious guys the impact of dating place on UAI didn't change by adding partner features, but it improved when adding lifestyle and drug use. It's hard to assess the actual risk for HIV for these guys: do they behave as HIV negative men that are trying to shield themselves from HIV infection, or as HIV-positive guys trying to guard their HIV-negative partner from HIV infection? A study by Horvath et al. reported that 72% of guys who were never tested for HIV, profiled themselves online as being HIV-negative, which might be problematic if they are HIV positive and participate in UAI with HIV negative partners 12 Formerly Matser et al. reported that 1.7% of the oblivious and sensed HIV-negative MSM were examined HIV positive. The study population included the MSM reported in this study 15
Because decisions on UAI seem to be partially based on perceived HIV concordance, accurate knowledge of one's own and the partner's HIV status is essential. In HIV-negative guys and HIV status-oblivious men, decisions on UAI WOn't only be based on perceived HIV status of the partner but in addition on one's own negative status. HIV serosorting is challenged by the frequency of HIV testing and the HIV window period during which people can transmit HIV but cannot be diagnosed with the commonly used HIV tests. Hence serosorting can't be regarded as an extremely successful way of avoiding HIV transmission 22 Besides interventions to stimulate the uptake of HIV and STI testing in sexually active men, interventions to warn against UAI based on sensed HIV negative concordant status are in order, irrespective of whether this concerns online or offline dating.
Dating online may offer other chances for communicating on HIV status than dating in physical environments. Easing more on-line HIV status disclosure during partner seeking makes serosorting easier. Yet, serosorting may increase the load of other STI and WOn't prevent HIV infection completely. Interventions to prevent HIV transmission should notably be directed at HIV negative and unaware MSM and spark timely HIV testing (i.e., after danger events or when experiencing symptoms of seroconversion illness) as well as regular testing when sexually active.
New research should remain up-to-date when it comes to rapid altering dating methods and sero-adaptive behaviours (such as viral sorting and pre exposure prophylaxis). With each new way of dating and preventive opportunities, the rules of battles will vary. Our data are 8years old and net-based dating has developed since then. However these results are useful, as they demonstrate how web-based partner acquisition can result in more information on the sex partner, and this may impact on the frequency of UAI.
AMC, Academic Medical Center; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; CINIMA, Center for Infection and Immunology Amsterdam; DAG, directed acyclic graph; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; i.e., id est, it is, for example; IQR, interquartile range; MEC, Medical Ethics Committee; MSM, men who have sex with men; OR, odds ratio; RIVM, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Centre for Infectious Disease Control; STI, sexually transmitted infection; UAI, unprotected anal intercourse; UMCU, University Medical Center Utrecht
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